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【引用】生命的颜色  

2011-11-26 19:04:10|  分类: 必修2 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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本文转载自穷开心《生命的颜色》
纷繁复杂的自然界,生物生生不息,绵延恒久,在历史的长河里我们犹如一滴滴水珠,但它却代表着生命的意义,进化的脚步谁也阻止不了,那就让我们共同去循着历史的足迹去探索!进化的学说

进化论是生物科学的核心理论,也是生物科学中最大的统一理。伴随着科学的发展和人类认识水平的提高,进化经历了一个由推到验证、由定性到定量、由零散到系统的发展过程。同时,针对由于相关科学进步所带来的新的疑问,进化论学者提出了一系列的学说加以解释,从而呈现出一派百家争鸣的气象。 

一、现在进化理论核心内容:

(一)、种群是生物进化的单位

(二)、突变和基因重组产生进化的原材料。

(三)、自然选择决定生物进化的方向。

(四)、隔离导致物种的形成

 

二、主要流派:                              

 

直生论

新拉马克主义

拉马克主义

早期进化思想

新灾变论

间断平衡论

中性学说

现代达尔文主义

新达尔文主义

达尔文主义

 

 

 

            

 1、拉马克学说的基本内容和主要观点可以归纳如下:

⑴ 传衍理论。⑵ 进化等级说。⑶ 环境的改变使生物发生适应性的进化,环境改变能够引起生物的变异,环境的多样性是生物多样性的主要原因。

⑷ 对于有神经系统和习性复杂的动物产生变异(适应)的原因,除环境变化和杂交外,更重要的是通过用进废退(theory of use and disuse)和获得性状遗传(theory of the inheritance of acquired characters)。⑸ 最原始的生物源于自然发生。

2、 达尔文主义

达尔文学说的基本内容和主要观点可以归纳如下:

⑴ 世界是进化的,物种不断变异,新种产生,旧种灭亡。

⑵ 生物进化是逐渐和连续的,不存在不连续的变异和突变,即“自然界没有飞跃”。⑶ 关于适应的起源。⑷ 关于自然选择。

⑸ 生物间存在着一定的亲缘关系,渊源于共同的祖先。

3、 新拉马克主义

生物具有很大的可塑性,环境发生变化时生物就会发生相应的变异,以适应新的环境条件。强调获得性状能够通过生殖细胞直接传递给后代,主张生物是通过获得性状及其遗传而进化的。 

4、 新达尔文主义

在新达尔文主义学派中,除了19世纪的魏斯曼(August Weismann, 1834-1914)、孟德尔(Gregor Johann Mendel, 1822-1884)、德弗里斯(Hugo de Vries, 1848-1935)外,20世纪的主要代表是约翰森(Wilhelm Johannsen, 1857-1927)和摩尔根(Thomas Hunt Morgan, 1866-1946)。作为新达尔文主义的创立者,德国动物学家魏斯曼他提出了种质学说(Germ-Plasm Theory),荷兰植物学家德弗里斯通过对月见草(Oenothera odorata Jacq.)的研究,提出了“突变”(mutation theory, mutationism,亦称骤变Saltationism),

1909年,丹麦学者约翰森发表了“纯系说”(Pure Line Theory)。。1926年,美国细胞遗传学家摩尔根发表了他的名著《基因》(Gene Theory),创立了“基因”,

5、 现代达尔文主义

现代达尔文主义亦称综合进化(The Synthetic Theory,包括后来的新综合理),是达尔文主义选择和新达尔文主义基因综合和提高的产物。1937年,杜布赞斯基出版了《遗传学和物种起源》一书,标志着综合理的形成。

现代综合进化主要包括以下几个方面的内容:⑴ 自然选择决定进化的方向,遗传和变异这一对矛盾是推动生物进化的动力;⑵ 种群是生物进化的基本单位,进化机制的研究属于群体遗传学范畴,进化的实质在于种群内基因频率和基因型频率的改变及由此引起的生物类型的逐渐演变;⑶ 突变、选择、隔离是物种形成和生物进化的机制。

6、 直生

直生(Orthogenesis)主张生物进化具有一种直线式的方向,这种方向是由特定的内在力量预先决定的,它不受环境的影响,与自然选择无关。

7、分子进化中性学说

1968年,日本学者木村资生(Motoo Kimura, 1924-1994)提出了分子进化中性学说(Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution)或简称中性学说(Neutral Theory)。

1969年,美国人金(J. L. King)和朱克斯(T. H. Jukes)发表了“非达尔文主义进化”(Non-Darwinian Evolution),也以大量分子生物学资料阐述了这一学说。

8、非线性进化生物学

新灾变(Neocatastrophism)、间断平衡(Theory of Punctuated Equilibrium)、协同(Synergetics)等非线性进化生物学(nonlinear evolutionary biology)。

1 新灾变 2 间断平衡3 协同

另外我查找外国资料,附有英文和中文翻译,大家分享

Evolutionary Theory

A theory of changes in organic design through 

controlled random mutations and contingent selection

(Francis Steen, revised 25 March 2001)

进化理论A theory of changes in organic design through 一种设计理论,通过改变有机controlled random mutations and contingent selecti控制随机突变和队伍的选择

(弗朗西斯施特恩,修订2001年3月25日)

The Neo-Darwinian Synthes The Neo-Darwinian Synthesis In broad terms, contemporary evolutionary theory builds on the synthesis of Darwin's ideas of natural variation and selection and Mendel's model of genetic inheritance accomplished by R.A. Fisher, J.B.S. Haldane, and Sewall Wright in 1930-32. For an overview, see George Williams, Evolution and Natural Selection (1966).

在新达尔文主义的合成 :In broad terms, contemporary evolutionary theory builds on the synthesis of Darwin's ideas of natural variation and selection and Mendel's model of genetic inheritance accomplished by RA Fisher , JBS Haldane, and Sewall Wright in 1930-32.从广义上讲,现代进化理论的基础是由合成基因遗传完成了达尔文的思想变化和自然选择的模型孟德尔和RA的费舍尔 ,JBS阿尔达,赖特在1930年至32年和休厄尔。 For an overview, see George Williams, Evolution and Natural Selection (1966).对于一个概述,见乔治威廉斯, 进化和自然选择 (1966年)。

Kingsolver, JG; Hoekstra, HE; Hoekstra, JM; Berrigan, D; and others (2001). The strength of phenotypic selection in natural populations. American Naturalist 157.Epistemological considerations. There is no reason to think we have a complete understanding of the operation of the genes.Current debate. There are various grounds on which to question aspects of the current evolutionary model, and a lively debate persists today. Evolution is in principle hard to model precisely, since the changes it describes usually takes place over time periods that are inaccessible to human beings. Consider the related situation in astronomy. Changes in the movement of the stars are slow, and until very recently were too slow to be detected within the lifetime of an individual. However, with the help of a continuous series of observations dating back to the fifth century BC, Copernicus was able to formulate a detailed model that fit two thousand years of data. Unfortunately, in the case of biology, two thousand years of continuous observation would in most cases reveal very little. We must thus rely in indirect evidence, such as fossil remains and systematic structural similarities and differences in living forms. This evidence leaves room for a variety of possible interpretations of past events, and thus of the mechanisms of change that underlie them. I can examine only a few focal points of contention.

Current debate. There are various grounds on which to question aspects of the current evolutionary model, and a lively debate persists tod目前的辩论。有各种各样的理由,这方面问题的模型对当前的进化,以及一个活跃的辩论今天仍在继续。 Evolution is in principle hard to model precisely, since the changes it describes usually takes place over time periods that are inaccessible to human beings.进化是在原则上难以精确模型,因为它描述的变化通常发生在时间段是人类无法进入的。 Consider the related situation in astronomy.考虑天文学的有关情况。 Changes in the movement of the stars are slow, and until very recently were too slow to be detected within the lifetime of an individual. However, with the help of a continuous series of observations dating back to the fifth century BC, Copernicus was able to formulate a detailed model that fit two thousand years of data.恒星的运动变化的速度很慢,直到最近的速度太慢,如发现个别在一个人的一生中。然而世纪,五分帮助背一个连续观测追溯到公元前系列,哥白尼能制定一个详细的模型,适合两千年的数据。 Unfortunately, in the case of biology, two thousand years of continuous observation would in most cases reveal very little.不幸的是,在生物案件,2000年的连续观察会发现在大多数情况下很少。 We must thus rely in indirect evidence, such as fossil remains and systematic structural similarities and differences in living forms. This evidence leaves room for a variety of possible interpretations of past events, and thus of the mechanisms of change that underlie them.因此,我们必须依靠间接证据形式,如化石遗迹和系统结构相似的生活和分歧。这事件的证据留下一个空间,过去的各种可能的解释,改变机制,从而对他们的背后。 I can examine only a few focal points of contention.我可以检查只有少数的争论焦点。

Some basic principles of evolutionary theory


the principle of self-replication: living forms are autocatalytic and self-replicating material processes (phenotypes)
the genetic principle: the construction of the phenotype is made possible by chemically stored information (genotypes)
the principle of randomness: the genotype is subject to changes by virtue of its material composition that lead to random changes in the information stored

Some entailments


random variation: random mutations in the genotype will generate randomly different phenotypes
contingent selection: some mutations will prevent the organism from replicating in its environment while others will facilitate replication
non-teleological design: the process of evolution itself is not designed to yield a specific result, although it results in organisms able to perform specific functions

Definitions


reproductive fitness: the statistically likely potential or actual number of reproductively viable offspring of an organism
adaptation: the specific phenotypic result of a mutation that is favored by selection
allele: the smallest genetic unit that is sufficient to code for a given adaptation
evolution: changes in allele frequencies in a population

Mechanisms of Selection


natural selection: all factors in the environment that influence allele frequency distributions, of which the following are special kinds
sexual selection: an adaptation whereby organisms select sexual partners on the basis of specific cues
kin selection: an adaptation whereby organisms devote resources to increase the reproductive fitness of their relatives, in proportion to their relatedness

Literature on the Baldwin effSome basic principles of evolutionary theo

 

进化理论的一些基本原则 :

 


the principle of self-replication: living forms are autocatalytic and self-replicating material processes (phenotypes)
复制的原则的自我:生活形式是催化和自我复制的材料流程(表型)
the genetic principle: the construction of the phenotype is made possible by chemically stored information (genotypes) 遗传原则:表型建设的办法是化学中存储的信息(基因型)

the principle of randomness: the genotype is subject to changes by virtue of its material composition that lead to random changes in the information stored 的随机性原则:基因型是受变化的信息存储凭借其物质组成的变化导致  随机到Some entailmen一些蕴涵


random variation: random mutations in the genotype will generate randomly different phenotypes 随机变化:随机突变的基因型将随机生成不同的表型
contingent selection: some mutations will prevent the organism from replicating in its environment while others will facilitate replication 队伍的选择:有些突变会阻止其从环境中的有机体,而复制他人将有助于复制

★non-teleological design: the process of evolution itself is not designed to yield a specific result, although it results in organisms able to perform specific functions 非目的论的设计:在进化过程本身并不是目的,以产生具体结果,但它在生物体的结果能够执行特定的功能 Definition定义

★reproductive fitness: the statistically likely potential or actual number of reproductively viable offspring of an organism 生殖健身:在统计上可能的潜在的或实际的生物数量的一个可行的繁殖后代

★adaptation: the specific phenotypic result of a mutation that is favored by selection 适应:通过选择特定的表型结果赞成的是突变

allele: the smallest genetic unit that is sufficient to code for a given adaptation

★等位基因的:最小的遗传单位,是足以给定的代码为适应

★evolution: changes in allele frequencies in a population 进化:等位基因频率的变化在人口 Mechanisms of Selection 机制的选择

★natural selection: all factors in the environment that influence allele frequency distributions, of which the following are special kinds 自然选择:环境影响的所有因素中等位基因频率分布,其中有以下特殊类型

sexual selection: an adaptation whereby organisms select sexual partners on the basis of specific c★性选择:一,使生物体适应特定的暗示性选择合作伙伴的基础上

★kin selection: an adaptation whereby organisms devote resources to increase the reproductive fitness of their relatives, in proportion to their relatedness 亲属选择:一,使生物体适应的投入资源,增加他们的亲属生殖健身的,他们的比例相关性

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